Conceptual Ideas – Akademija Art http://akademija-art.net/ Tue, 22 Nov 2022 14:00:44 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://akademija-art.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon-150x150.png Conceptual Ideas – Akademija Art http://akademija-art.net/ 32 32 “Christianity and Psychiatry” examines faith and tradition in relation to medical and scientific knowledge https://akademija-art.net/christianity-and-psychiatry-examines-faith-and-tradition-in-relation-to-medical-and-scientific-knowledge/ Tue, 22 Nov 2022 14:00:44 +0000 https://akademija-art.net/christianity-and-psychiatry-examines-faith-and-tradition-in-relation-to-medical-and-scientific-knowledge/ BOOK REVIEW Christianity and psychiatry Edited by John R. Peteet, MD; H. Steven Moffic, MD; Ahmed Hankir, MBChB, MRCPsych; and Harold G. Koenig, MD Springer, 2021; 311 pages; $119 (paperback) Reviewed by Renato D. Alarcon, MD, MPH Christianity and psychiatry is the third in a series of books focusing on several angles of the religion-psychiatry […]]]>

BOOK REVIEW

Christianity and psychiatry

Edited by John R. Peteet, MD; H. Steven Moffic, MD; Ahmed Hankir, MBChB, MRCPsych; and Harold G. Koenig, MD

Springer, 2021; 311 pages; $119 (paperback)

Reviewed by Renato D. Alarcon, MD, MPH

Christianity and psychiatry is the third in a series of books focusing on several angles of the religion-psychiatry equation, published over the past 3 years and edited, virtually, by the same team of researchers. These characteristics confer a high academic quality and a homogeneous set of perspectives on the subject of Christianity and its many links with psychiatry throughout the centuries.

The previous 2 volumes dealt with Islamophobia and anti-Semitism as human/behavioural/emotional attitudes. Christianity may not engender a similar breadth of negative responses, but, perhaps for the same reason, its ties to psychiatry present a wider variety of fronts.

This is the objective pursued by the 4 editors (from Harvard Medical School, Medical College of Wisconsin, Duke Medical Center and King’s College London) – asking a total of 31 authors (23 from the United States, 3 from Canada, 3 from the UK, and 1 each from Scotland and 1 from the Netherlands) to contribute 21 chapters. As the foreword and introduction indicate, the book addresses different levels of faith and tradition in relation to medical and scientific knowledge, their antagonisms and controversies, and their integration and reciprocity.

A panoramic and detailed analysis of the content of the book led this reviewer to formulate a catalog of 5 areas explored over the chapters, areas sometimes clearly delimited, and other times inevitably mixed because of their complexity. It is not an isolating compartmentalization because the connections emerge almost spontaneously; nevertheless, I will describe and explore them as neatly as possible in an attempt to systematize the impressive wealth of reading material. The first 3 areas are history, clinical practice and education, while the last 2 examine implicit contradictions (not of or between the authors, but belonging to the subjects themselves) and certain conceptual or formal absences, but not necessarily formidable.

Story

The historical accent touches many chapters with authority. Some readers may think the first, titled “The Heavy History of Psychiatry and Christianity,” would suffice with its impressive deployment of information from biblical sources to lucid insights into the Middle Ages and the accomplishments of legendary figures like Augustine d ‘Hippone, Baxter, Tuke, Brigham, Charcot, Janet and William James over the last 6 centuries.

The questioning of the divinely inspired behaviors of Old Testament heroes as possible psychiatric syndromes also began long ago (Chapter 3). It seems that the stigma of mental disorders (including self-stigma) has always existed (Chapters 2 and 14). We learn about the Christian origins of Alcoholics Anonymous (chapter 11) and the inclusion of “soul care” envisioned and clearly enunciated by Johann Christian Reil (the originator of the name “psychiatry” for our field) in 1808 (chapter 16) .

The controversies between conservative Christians (predominantly Protestant) and liberal Christians generated anger and confusion, but also channeled the first elements of the contemporary concept of liberation theology (chapter 19). Equally important, we learn about the protective attitude of the Prophet Muhammad towards Christians (chapter 19) and we consider the history of ideological and temperamental controversies between Freud (who could be described as an atheist Jew) and some of his early Christian disciples. notables (i.e. Jung), who occupy a crucial place in the doctrinal history of psychiatry and psychoanalysis (chapters 18 and 19).

Clinical practice

Clinical practice encompasses diagnostic and treatment/care actions, all reflecting well-defined goals and positively oriented pragmatism. The historical detection of stigma, primarily among Christian (“charismatic”, authoritarian) communities and churches from ancient times, paved the way for the materialization of faith-inspired healing (Chapter 2).

In turn, religion and God have become a source of resilience and adaptability, especially among young people (chapter 5). The distinction between psychotic symptoms and spiritual phenomena led to early conceptualizations of clinical processes later named spectraan important contemporary nosological term that anticipated the great potential of mutually understanding collaboration among clinicians (Chapter 3).

In the therapeutic realm, the progressive Christian view enabled the acceptance of “folk healing”, a strongly culturally-based approach to treatment that undoubtedly used elements of support, empathy, encouragement and inspiration in non-Christian or nominally Christian patients (Chapters 1, 18, and 19).

The above reiterates the hermeneutic closeness to “faith as treatment” (Chapter 5), which is also part of the spectrum of therapeutic resources that today’s well-trained and competent mental health professionals are learning to utilize. Spiritual care has a place in the list of therapeutic approaches to a variety of clinical conditions (Chapters 10-13 and 17).

This is another way of saying that psychotherapy, as one of the most powerful resources to help patients with mental illness, follows an inclusive trajectory – a complete sequence in which the spiritual crowns a bio-psycho -socio-cultural towards healing (chapters 8, 12, 14 and 16).

Education

Medical/psychiatric education and training issues are an essential component of this volume. Virtually all of the chapters convey valuable concepts, ideas and themes that could or should be incorporated into pre- and postgraduate curricula.

Quite interesting angles are offered by the Christian evaluation of explanatory medical models of psychopathology (Chapters 2 and 4); comprehensive management of trauma (chapter 6) and psychoses (chapter 13); ‘integration debates’ as group educational activities (Chapter 12); characteristics of Christian psychiatric care delivery and clergy-clinician collaborations (Chapters 14 and 15); and the study of the results vis-à-vis different Christian psychotherapeutic interventions (chapter 18).

Didactic principles are often conveyed through valuable biblical quotations (chapters 8 and 10). old terms such as acedia (or spiritual apathy; chapter 4) and theodicy (or human attempts to understand why God allows suffering; chapter 9) takes on renewed meaning and relevance.

It goes without saying that several of the ideas and concepts discussed so far, strongly reinforced by Christian perspectives, occupy a legitimate place in the educational arsenal provided by the book: resilience, stigmatization, “moral damage” helping to understand modern entities like burnout. (chapter 7), loneliness as a pathogen (“magnifying susceptibility to spiritual collapse”; chapter 16), etc. And, at the top, we can only mention, among many others, 3 vigorous contributions of Christian psychiatry:

  1. His celebration of reconciliation as a driving force for emotional recovery and of life as a search for existential meaning – all of which predate Viktor Frankl’s existentialism and logotherapy (Chapter 4)
  2. Shared decision-making and values-based practice (Fulford’s legacy) that give psychiatry the role of a “normative practice approach” compatible with a community approach in social philosophy and ethics – the latter in the way principles such as beneficence, mercy, charity, selflessness, hope and trust (chapter 12)
  3. The study of relational phenomena which, beyond “leveling” and contextualization, bear on intersubjectivity and the existence of the “third party” outside the exclusively dyadic perspectives of doctor-patient and teacher-public (chapter 16) – a wise anticipation of the “otherness” phenomenon that is so deeply relevant in today’s psychiatry and psychotherapy

Contradictions

A book of this nature must also examine ancient and current contradictions in the field of so-called Christian psychiatry to assert truth and objectivity. The controversies between Freudian discourses on religion in general – and Christianity and its churches, in particular – are repeatedly evoked, personalizing it in a way in their exchanges and Freud’s final break with Jung.

Beyond that, the Christian vision reflects the numerous confrontations of yesterday and today between psychology and psychiatry (chapter 12). Differing interpretations of the same clinical phenomena, a frequent reality among clinicians, also occur among theologians discussing the religious/spiritual significance of psychopathological behaviors (Chapter 4).

Last but not least, contradictions are recognized and discussed within and between the Christian churches in their examination of psychiatric symptoms, syndromes and illnesses, and – perhaps more profoundly – between the Jews (the first Christians in history) and the black Christians (chapters 14 and 19).

Absences

Finally, a critic must point out the absences, omissions, or even excesses in the work read, of quasi-criticisms which may be quite personal or debatable. A broad and panoramic view of the religious/spiritual perspective as a strong component of ancient and contemporary cultural psychiatry seems to be lacking; some might say that the whole book is a sort of treatise on the subject, but an ontological clarification in the form of a brief chapter might have helped.

The role of the family is mentioned many times, but lacks clear direction and meaning, again from a cultural (not just Christian) point of view. Theoretical speculation was sometimes unavoidable, and simplistic explanations (e.g., slow breathing triggering autonomic nervous system activation) were perhaps so likely due to space reasons.

In short, this volume is a fascinating foray into a field that everyone talks about, but few delve into. It offers excellent historical reviews, valuable clinical experiences, selected didactic pearls and, in its last 3 chapters, significant autobiographies of psychiatrists of different religious denominations sharing a common work rich in essentially human ingredients: psychiatry. As the final paragraphs point out, this perspective helps patients of all religious beliefs and viewpoints, encouraging them and their psychiatrists to integrate faith into the rest of their lives.

This book will also help psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to “stay aware of (their) blind spots and their needs for both God and science”, reaching, in turn, “a grounded view of truth evidence-based, clinically relevant and informed”. by the wisdom of Christianity and its sister traditions.

Dr. Alarcon is emeritus professor emeritus of psychiatry at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota; Honorio Delgado Chair at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru; and member of the editorial board of Psychiatric timeMT.

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The detribalized Nigerian does not exist. It never was https://akademija-art.net/the-detribalized-nigerian-does-not-exist-it-never-was/ Sun, 20 Nov 2022 06:04:21 +0000 https://akademija-art.net/the-detribalized-nigerian-does-not-exist-it-never-was/ In 1989, scholars Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin published their highly successful study of the evolution of various dialects of the English language from different empires. Their title was The Empire responds. The book shows how various outposts of the Empire appropriated the language and adapted its grammar and usage. Few outposts of […]]]>

In 1989, scholars Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin published their highly successful study of the evolution of various dialects of the English language from different empires. Their title was The Empire responds. The book shows how various outposts of the Empire appropriated the language and adapted its grammar and usage.

Few outposts of the Empire have been as prolific in this endeavor as Nigeria. Conceived as an illegitimate offspring in the threesome between Sir George Taubman Goldie; his mistress, Flora Shaw; and his near successor, Frederick Lugard, Nigeria became a colonial experiment in the Tower of Babel.

A national anthem composed in 1959, a year before Independence in 1960, acknowledged this reality in the third line of its first stanza, reminding the world of the aspiration to create a country even “though tribe and language may differ”. The anthem itself invited citizens to “hail” the country to the antiquarian, in the biblical third person, symbolizing a relationship to the country fractured from its origin. It does not matter that the interpellation had to be made in the borrowed language of a foreign country.

Without compulsory access to basic education, which could have created a common vocabulary in the imported language, the Nigerian imagination invented its own grammar of mutual intelligibility. This language is called “Pidgin English”, which doesn’t quite do it justice. It is characterized by an open grammar in which meaning is always available to reveal itself to anyone interested in exercising the imagination.

But this is not the only function of Nigerian English. The French colonial policy of assimilation also offered their way of life the pinnacle of civilization, promising the natives (as the colonists everywhere called Africans) the opportunity to “evolve” to the highest level of civilization, whether they claimed to be French citizenship. For those of us in Nigeria, access to Nigerian English is our license to civilization.

Here, we qualify as “detribalized” those who have reached this level of civilization. This is arguably the greatest compliment a Nigerian can give to another. On the contrary, for the possessors of the language, to detribalize someone is to uproot him.

When his former minister, Jubril Martins-Kuye, died last year, President Olusegun Obasanjo called him “detribalized”.

Sokoto State Governor Aminu Tambuwal says only a “detribalized” Nigerian is fit to rule the country.

Thus, the supporters of the presidential candidate of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), Atiku Abubakar, hasten to claim the torch, calling him the only “detribalized” in the race to succeed Muhammadu Buhari, mainly accused of being The opposite.

Supporters of Labor Party candidate Peter Obi argue that he too is “detribalised”.

Not to be outdone, even the All Progressives Congress (APC) presidential candidate’s tribesmen in the Yoruba Council of Elders (YCE) claim he is detribalized, which raises the question of why they exist. in the first place.

To show how meaningless the phrase has become, former Kano State Primary Education Board (SPEB) chairman Malam Yakubu Adamu even called the late Emir of Kano, Alhaji Ado Bayero, detribalized. But if the Emir, by definition, was the incarnation of a tribe, how can we qualify him at the same time as “detribalized”?

Columnist Tayo Oke complains that the word is “widely embraced as a mark of respect by the political elite…yet so devoid of substance”, adding that “people should find it infuriating that someone refers to them as a ‘Detribalized’ Nigerian; it’s an insult to intelligence.

Academic Jideofor Adibe explains that “when speaking of being ‘detribalised’ in the Nigerian context, it is assumed that there is a specific Nigerian culture to which those who have voluntarily given up any form of relationship with cultures and customs of their ancestors are socialized.

Under colonial occupation, the tribe was (in law) under civilization. Those who were defined by it naturally wanted to be freed from it.

For the native, the tribe was both a sanctuary from colonial predation and a prison from which he sought to emancipate himself.

So it was the mission of colonialism, they said, to bring these people to civilization.

Mechanisms were built into this to ensure that the tribalization of the native was resilient.

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London determined in 1918, at the end of the First World War, that the African tribes were “so low in the scale of social organization that their usages and conceptions of rights and duties should not be reconciled with the institutions or legal ideas of civilized society. The tribesmen, they said, were incapable of exercising legitimate leadership, ownership or identity and were below dignity.

The tribalization of the native was at the heart of the methods of colonial administration. Ugandan scholar Mahmood Mamdani has described the tribe as “the unit of indirect rule”. As a result, the settlers ensured that “each tribe should be considered as a separate unit…. Each tribe must be led by a leader.

A year after the Privy Council’s decision, Frederick Lugard could state in his amalgamation report rendered in 1919 that the policy was that these “chiefs should govern their people not as independent rulers but as dependent rulers.”

First, leaders who were given powers of life and death in this way (like the emirs) had every interest in supporting them.

Second, the tribe was the means by which settlers calibrated government benefits and burdens. It thus ensured competition between different populations and peoples for the attention and affections of political power.

This meant, third, that tribe as identity did not depend simply on the subjective opinions of those who identified with it; it also defined how those outside your tribe see you.

It is therefore no coincidence that the Nigerian elite who seek to govern the country believe that their highest form of evolution is to describe themselves as “detribalized”.

In fact, the term “detribalized” is worse than condescending colonial nonsense. It starts from a conceptual error that “tribal” identity is expendable like a piece of traditional equipment. It’s not.

By using this expression, the Nigerian elite makes the tribe seem like a pigment that can be cured with ejaculations from a tube of anthropological bleaching cream.

Ayodele, Ekaette, Kyari, Nkeiruka and Owoicho are all markers of belonging and exclusion. No matter how evolved the wearer wishes to feel, these identities remind others in which boxes they should fit.

Nativization, in this way, is the mechanism by which Nigerians prepare to clash in the existential war over tribalization. It is also how we remember that “detribalized” is an elite trick on the peasantry. While claiming to be “detribalized,” these elites also ensure that their followers are fully tribalized representatives of intertribal warfare. This is the only way they can preserve their territory in the battle to carve up the country.

The implications are very important. In Nigeria, at least, that means you can remove the tribe from the man, but it’s impossible to remove the man from the tribe. It is no coincidence that the first question almost every Nigerian asks the next is “where are you from?”

So many decades after the departure of the settlers, this situation has hardly changed. Simply put, no matter how civilized you think you are, as long as you are in the country, Nigeria will come to you and remind you of where you came from without necessarily telling you that it is going anywhere.

Lawyer and teacher, Odinkalu can be reached at chidi.odinkalu@tufts.edu

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Spillt creates the main titles of “Low Country: The Murdaugh Dynasty” https://akademija-art.net/spillt-creates-the-main-titles-of-low-country-the-murdaugh-dynasty/ Wed, 16 Nov 2022 17:04:00 +0000 https://akademija-art.net/spillt-creates-the-main-titles-of-low-country-the-murdaugh-dynasty/ Creation Workshop Reversed was recently enlisted by HBO Max and Campfire Studios to produce the main titles of Netherlands: the Murdaugh dynastya three-part docuseries that chronicles the legacy of the Murdaugh family, whose powerful century-old influence on the South Carolina Lowcountry legal system comes to light amid accusations of fraud, deceit and murder. Working with […]]]>

Creation Workshop Reversed was recently enlisted by HBO Max and Campfire Studios to produce the main titles of Netherlands: the Murdaugh dynastya three-part docuseries that chronicles the legacy of the Murdaugh family, whose powerful century-old influence on the South Carolina Lowcountry legal system comes to light amid accusations of fraud, deceit and murder.

Working with Campfire Studios, Spillt needed to find a tone powerful enough to draw viewers into the story, get them asking the right questions, and keep them guessing without relying on key plot elements. Thematically, this tone had to combine an authentic southern location with the ideas of rotten decay and generational wealth.

“We challenged ourselves to bring so much depth of thought to this project that we all pushed our technical and creative chops,” said Ryan Summers, Spillt’s Senior Creative Director. “Everyone threw creative ideas full of references, writing, textures and tones into a big pile, which – as a team – we debated to see what could be shaped into unique concepts, and everyone left. alone to elaborate his point of view, a possible story.

Spillt combined brainstorming in Milanote, AI tools (DALL-E and Midjourney) and the creative process, allowing rhythm progression without style frames. Instead, the studio edited stock footage, extracted footage, AI elements, and raw Photoshop comps to lock in the theme and pacing of the main titles before designing.

“When paired with a detailed description, it really helped set the tone by allowing us to design each shot based on the first cut,” explained Ed Rhine, owner and executive creative director of Spillt. “But what’s especially special to me is that everyone at Spillt has contributed to concept development and ideation, which is really the perfect example of our approach and our mantra.”

Check out the titles:

In addition to the main 30-second headlines, Spillt produced over 100 pieces of custom on-show editorial content for the show.

Source: Spill

Debbie Diamond Sarto's photo

Debbie Diamond Sarto is Editor-in-Chief of Animation World Network.

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BRCC Share Price Prediction: Should We Buy BRCC Shares in a Limited Market? https://akademija-art.net/brcc-share-price-prediction-should-we-buy-brcc-shares-in-a-limited-market/ Sat, 05 Nov 2022 20:00:00 +0000 https://akademija-art.net/brcc-share-price-prediction-should-we-buy-brcc-shares-in-a-limited-market/ No result Show all results © Copyright 2022. The Republic of Coins Are you sure you want to unlock this message? Unlock left: 0 Yes Nope Are you sure you want to cancel the subscription? Yes Nope]]>

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